Monday, May 25, 2009

Revelation Chapter 17

The 1599 Geneva Study Bible
Chapter 17
17:1 And 1 there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto 2 thee the a judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
(1) The state of the Church militant being declared, now follows the state of the church overcoming and getting victory, as I showed before in the beginning of the tenth chapter. This state is set forth in four chapters. As in the place before I noted, that in that history the order of time was not always exactly observed so the same is to be understood in this history, that it is distinguished according to the people of which it speaks, and that the stories of the people are observed in the time of it. For first is delivered the story of Babylon destroyed in this and the next chapter (for this Babylon out of all doubt, shall perish before the two beasts and the dragon). Secondly, is delivered the destruction of both the two beasts, chapter nineteen and lastly of the dragon, chapter eighteen. In the story of the spiritual Babylon, are distinctly set forth the state of it in this chapter, and the overthrow done from the first argument, consisting of the particular calling of the prophet (as often before) and a general proposition. (2) That is, that damnable harlot, by a figure of speech called "hyppalage". For John as yet had not seen her. Although another interpretation may be thought of, yet I like this better. (a) The sentence that is pronounce against this harlot. 17:3 3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a b scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
(3) Henceforth is propounded the type of Babylon, and the state of it, in four verses. After, a declaration of the type, in the rest of this chapter. In the type are described two things, the beast (of whom chapter thirteen speaks), in this verse and the woman that sits on the beast in (Revelation 17:4-6). The beast in process of time has gotten somewhat more than was expressed in the former vision. First in that it is not read before that he was apparelled in scarlet, a robe imperial and of triumph. Secondly, in that this is full of names of blasphemy: the other carried the name of blasphemy only in his heads. So God teaches that this beast is much increased in impiety and injustice and does in this last age, triumph in both these more insolently and proudly then ever before. (b) A scarlet colour, that is, with a red and purple garment: and surely it was not without cause the romish clergy were so much delighted with this colour. 17:4 And 4 the woman was arrayed 5 in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having 6 a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
(4) That harlot, the spiritual Babylon, which is Rome. She is described by her attire, profession, and deeds. (5) In attire most glorious, triumphant, most rich, and most gorgeous. (6) In profession the nourisher of all, in this verse and teaching her mysteries to all, (Revelation 17:5) setting forth all things most magnificently: but indeed fatally besetting miserable men with her cup, and brings upon them a deadly giddiness. 17:5 7 And upon her forehead [was] a name written, MYSTERY, 8 BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
(7) Deceiving with the title of religion, and public inscription of mystery: which the beast in times past did not bear. (8) An exposition: in which John declares what manner of woman this is. 17:6 9 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: 10 and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
(9) In manner of deeds: She is red with blood, and sheds it most licentiously, and therefore is coloured with the blood of the saints, as on the contrary part, Christ is set forth imbued with the blood of her enemies; (Isaiah 63:1). (10) A passage to the second part of this chapter, by occasion given of John, as the words of the angel do show in the next verse. 17:7 11 And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
(11) The second part or place as I said in See Revelation 17:1. The narration of the vision promised in the verse following. Now there is delivered first a narration of the beast and his story, to verse fourteen. After, of the harlot, to the end of the chapter. 17:8 12 The beast that thou sawest 13 was, and is not; and 14 shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, 15 when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.
(12) The story of the beast has a triple description of him. The first is a distinction of this beast from all that ever have been at any time: which distinction is contained in this verse: The second is a delineation or painting out of the beast by things present, by which he might even at that time be known by the godly: and this delineation is according to his heads in (Revelation 17:12-14). This beast is that empire of Rome, of which I spoke in See Geneva according to the mutations and changes of which then had already happened, the Holy Spirit has distinguished and set out the same. The apostle distinguishes this beast from all others in these words "the beast which thou saw, was and is not." For so I expound the words of the apostle for the evidence’s sake, as I will further declare in the notes following. (13) The meaning is, that beast which you saw before in (Revelation 13:1) and which you have now seen, was (was I say) from Julius Caesar in respect to beginning, rising up, station, glory, dominion, manner and family, from the house of Julius: and yet is not now the same, if you look to the house and family: for the dominion of this family was translated to another, after the death of Nero from that other to a third, from a third to a fourth, and so on, was varied and altered by innumerable changes. Finally, the Empire is one, as it were one beast: but exceedingly varied by kindreds, families, and persons. It was therefore (says John) in the kindred or house of Julius: and now it is not in that kindred, but translated to another. (14) As if he should say, "Also this same that is, shall shortly not be: but shall ascend out of the depth, or out of the sea" (as was said) in (Revelation 13:1) that is, shall be a new stock from among the nations without difference and shall in the same state go to into destruction, or run and perish: and so shall successively new princes or emperors come and go, arise and fall, the body of the beast remaining still, but tossed with many frequent alterations, as no man can but marvel that this beast was able to stand and hold out, in so many mutations, verily no empire that ever was tossed with so many changes, and as it were with so many tempests of the sea, ever continued so long. 17:9 16 And here [is] the mind which hath wisdom. The c seven heads 17 are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.
(16) An exhortation preparing for the readers in the same argument, as that of Christ "He that hath ears to hear let him hear". I would rather read in this passage "Let there be here a mind, etc". So the angel passes to the second place of this description. (c) Children know what the seven hilled city is, which is so much spoken of, and where of Virgil thus reports, "And compasses seven towers in one wall", that city it is, which when John wrote these things, had rule over the kings of the earth. It was and is not, and yet it remains to this day, but it is declining to destruction. (17) This is the description of the beast by things present (as I said before) by which John endeavoured to describe the same, that he might be both known of the godly in that age, and be further observed and marked of posterity afterwards. This delineation has one tip, that is, his heads, but a double description or application of the type: one permanent, from the nature itself, the other changeable, by the working of men. The description permanent, is by the seven hills, in this verse, the other that flees, is from the seven kings, (Revelation 17:10,11). Here it is worthy to be observed, that one type has sometime two or more applications, as seems good to the Holy Spirit to express, either one thing by various types, or various things by one type. So I noted before of the seven spirits in See Geneva. Now this woman that sits on seven hills, is the city of Rome, called in times past by the Greeks, "upon a hill" i. of seven tops or crests and by Varro, "septiceps" i. of her seven heads (as here) of seven heads, and by others, "septem collis" i. standing upon seven hills. 17:10 18 And there are seven kings: 19 five are fallen, 20 and one is, 21 [and] the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.
(18) The beginning of these kings or emperors is almost the same as the beginning of the Church of Christ, which I showed before in See Geneva. Namely from the 25th year after the passion of Christ, at which time the temple and church of the Jews was overthrown. In this year it came to pass by the providence of God, that that saying "The beast was, and is not" was fulfilled before the destruction of the Jews immediately following, came to pass. That was 809 years from the building of the city of Rome at which time John counted the emperors who had been, when he wrote these things, and foretells two others next to come: and with this purpose, that when this particular prediction of things to come should take effect, the truth of all other predictions in the Church, might be the more confirmed. God in ancient times mentioned this sign in the Law and Jeremiah confirmed it in (Deuteronomy 18:1-22; Jeremiah 28:8). (19) Whose names are these: the first, Servius Sulpitius Galba, who was the seventh emperor of the people of Rome, the second Marcus Salvius Otho, the third Avlus Vitellius, the fourth, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the fifth, Titus Vespasianus his son, of his own name. (20) Flavius Domitian, son of the first Vespasian. For in the latter end of his days John wrote these things, as witnesses Irenaus; Lib. 5 adversus hareses. (21) Nerua, The empire being now translated from the family of Flavius. This man reigned only one year, four months and nine days, as the history writers tell. 17:11 22 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is 23 the eighth, and is 24 of the seven, 25 and goeth into perdition.
(22) This is spoken by synecdoche, as if to say, as that head of the beast which was and is not, because it is cut off, and Nerua in so short time extinguished. How many heads there were, so many beasts there seemed to be in one. See a similar speech in (Revelation 13:3). (23) Nerua Traianus, who in various respects is called here the seventh and the eighth. (24) Though in number and order of succession he is the eighth yet he is counted with one of these heads, because Nerua and he were one head. For this man obtained authority together with Nerua and was Consul with him, when Nerua died. (25) Namely, to persecute the Churches of Christ, as history agrees, and I have briefly noted See Geneva. 17:12 26 And the ten horns which thou sawest are 27 ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings 28 one hour with the beast.
(26) The third place of this description, as I said in See Geneva is a prophetical prediction of things to come, which the beast should do, as in the words following John does not obscurely signify, saying, "which have not yet received the kingdom, etc". For there is an antithesis or opposition between these kings, and those that went before. First the persons are described in this verse, then their deeds, in the two verses following. (27) That is, arising with their kingdoms out of that Roman beast: at such time as that political empire began to fall by the plotting of the popes. (28) Namely, with that second beast, whom we called before a false prophet, who ascending out of the earth, got to himself all the authority and power of the first beast, and exercised the same before his face, as was said in (Revelation 14:11,12). For when the political empire of the west began to bow downwards, there arose those ten kings, and the second beast took the opportunity offered to usurp for himself all the power of the former beast. These kings long ago, many have numbered and described to be ten, and a great part of the events plainly testifies the same in this our age. 17:13 29 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.
(29) That is, by consent and agreement, that they may conspire with the beast, and depend on his call. Their story is divided into three parts, counsels, acts, and events. The counsellors some of them consist in communicating of judgments and affections: and some in communicating of power, which they are said to have given to this beast, in this verse. 17:14 These shall make war with the 30 Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him [are] called, and chosen, and faithful.
(30) With Christ and his Church, as the reason following declares, and here are mentioned the facts and events which followed for Christ’s sake, and for the grace of God the Father towards those that are elected, called, and are his faithful ones in Christ. 17:15 31 And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, 32 are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.
(31) This is the other part of the narration, as I said in See Geneva belonging to the harlot, showed in the vision, (Revelation 17:3). In this history of the harlot, these three things are distinctly propounded, what is her magnificence, in this verse, what is her fall, and by whom it shall happen to her, in (Revelation 17:16,17): and lastly, who that harlot is, in (Revelation 17:18). This passage which by order of nature should have been the first, is therefore made the last, because it was more fit to be joined with the next chapter. (32) That is, as changing and variable as the waters. Upon this foundation sits this harlot as queen, a vain person, on that which is vain. 17:16 And the ten 33 horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.
(33) The ten kings, as (Revelation 17:12). The accomplishment of this fact and event is daily increased in this our age by the singular providence and most mighty government of God. Therefore the facts are propounded in this verse, and the cause of them in the verses following. 17:17 34 For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.
(34) A reason rendered from the chief efficient cause, which is the providence of God, by which alone John by inversion of order affirms to have come to pass, both that the kings should execute on the harlot that which pleased God, and which he declared in the verse before: and also that by one consent and counsel, they should give their kingdom to the beast, etc. (Revelation 17:13,14) for as these being blinded have before depended on the call of the beast that lifts up the harlot, so it is said, that afterward it shall come to pass, that they shall turn back, and shall fall away from her, when their hearts shall be turned into better state by the grace and mercy of God. 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that 35 great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.
(35) That is, Rome that great city, or only city (as Justinian calls it) the king and head of which was then the emperor, but now the pope, since the condition of the beast was changed.

Revelation Chapter 18

The 1599 Geneva Study Bible
Chapter 18
18:1 And 1 after these things I saw another 2 angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.
(1) The second passage (as I said before) See Geneva of the history of Babylon, is of the woeful fall and ruin of that whore of Babylon. This historical prediction concerning her, is threefold. The first a plain and simple foretelling of her ruin, in three verses (Revelation 18:2,3). The second a figurative prediction by the circumstances, from there to (Revelation 18:4-20). The third, a confirmation of the same by sign or wonder, to the end of the chapter (Revelation 18:21-24). (2) Either Christ the eternal word of God the Father (as often elsewhere) or a created angel, and one deputed to this service, but thoroughly provided with greatness of power, and with light of glory, as the ensign of power. 18:2 3 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
(3) The prediction of her ruin, containing both the fall of Babylon, in this verse, and the cause of it uttered by way of allegory concerning her spiritual and carnal wickedness, that is, her most great impiety and injustice, in (Revelation 18:3). Her fall is first declared by the angel, and then the greatness of it is shown here, by the events when he says it shall be the seat and habitation of devils, of wild beasts, and of cursed souls, as in (Isaiah 13:21) and often elsewhere. 18:4 4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, 5 Come out of her, my people, that ye 6 be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.
(4) The second prediction, which is of the circumstances of the ruin of Babylon: of these there are two types: one going before it, as beforehand the godly are delivered, to the ninth verse (Revelation 18:5-9): the other following on her ruin, namely the lamentation of the wicked, and rejoicing of the godly, to the twentieth verse (Revelation 18:10-20). (5) Two circumstance going before the ruin, are commanded in this place: one is that the godly depart out of Babylon: as I mentioned in chapter twelve to have been done in time past, before the destruction of Jerusalem: this charge is given here and in the next verse. The other is, that every one of them occupy themselves in their own place, in executing the judgment of God, as it was commanded of the Levites in (Exodus 32:27) and that they sanctify their hands to the Lord. (6) Of this commandment there are two causes: to avoid the contamination of sin and to shun the participation of those punishments that belong to it. 18:5 For her sins have a reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
(a) He uses a word which signifies the following of sins one after another, and rising one of another in such sort, that they grow at length to such a heap, that they come up even to heaven. 18:6 7 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
(7) The provocation of the godly, and the commandment of executing the judgment of God, stand on three causes which are here expressed: the unjust wickedness of the whore of Babylon, in this verse, her cursed pride opposing itself against God, which is the fountain of all evil actions, (Revelation 18:7) and her most just damnation by the sentence of God, (Revelation 18:8). 18:7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith b in her heart, I sit a queen, and am c no widow, and shall d see no sorrow.
(b) With herself. (c) I am full of people and mighty. (d) I shall taste of none. 18:8 Therefore shall her plagues come in e one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong [is] the Lord God who judgeth her.
(e) Shortly, and at one instant. 18:9 And 8 the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,
(8) The circumstances following the fall of Babylon, or the consequences of it (as I distinguished them in) See Geneva are two. Namely the lamentation of the wicked to (Revelation 18:5-19) and the rejoicing of the godly in (Revelation 18:20). This sorrowful lamentation, according to those that lament, has three parts: the first of which is the mourning of the kings and mighty men of the earth, (Revelation 18:9,10): The second is, the lamentation of the merchants that trade by land, to the sixteenth verse: (Revelation 18:11-16). The third is, the wailing of those that trade by sea, in (Revelation 18:16-18). In each of those the cause and manner of their mourning is described in order, according to the condition of those that mourn, with observation of that which best agrees to them. 18:11 9 And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:
(9) The lamentation of those that trade by land, as I distinguished before. 18:14 10 And the f fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.
(10) An apostrophe, or turning of the speech by imitation, used for more vehemence, as if those merchants, as mourners, should in passionate speech speak to Babylon, though now utterly fallen and overthrown; (Isaiah 13:9) and in many other places. (f) By this is meant that season which is before the fall of the leaf, at which time fruit ripens, and the word signifies such fruits as are longed for. 18:17 11 For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,
(11) The manner of mourning used by them that trade by sea. 18:20 Rejoice over her, 12 [thou] heaven, and [ye] holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.
(12) The other consequence on the ruin of Babylon, is the exultation or rejoicing of the godly in heaven and in earth as was noted in this verse. 18:21 13 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast [it] into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
(13) The third prediction, as I said See Geneva based on a sign, and the interpretation of it: the interpretation of it is in two sorts, first by a simple proposal of the thing itself, in this verse, and then by declaration of the events, in the verses following. 18:22 14 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft [he be], shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
(14) The events are two, and one of them opposite to the other for amplification sake. There shall be no mirth nor joy at all in Babylon, he says in this and the next verse, (Revelation 18:23) but heavy and lamentable things, from the bloody slaughters of the righteous and the vengeance of God coming on it for this. 18:24 And in her was found the 15 blood of prophets, 16 and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
(15) That is shed by bloody massacres, and calling for vengeance. (16) That is, proved and found out, as if God had appointed a just inquiry concerning the impiety, unnaturalness and injustice of these men.

Revelation Chapter 19

The 1599 Geneva Study Bible
Chapter 19
19:1 And 1 after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, a 2 Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:
(1) This chapter has in summary two parts, one transitory or of passage to the things that follow, to the tenth verse, (Revelation 19:2-10), another historical of the victory of Christ over both the beasts, to the end of the chapter (Revelation 19:11-21), which I said was the second history of this argument, (Revelation 17:1). The transition has two places, one of praising God for the overthrow done to Babylon in (Revelation 19:4): and another likewise of praise and prophecy, for the coming of Christ to his kingdom, and his most royal marriage with his Church, thence to the tenth verse (Revelation 19:5-10). The former praise has three parts, distinguished after the ancient manner of those that sing: an invitation in (Revelation 19:1,2), a response or answer in (Revelation 19:3), and a close or joining together in harmony in (Revelation 19:4), all which I thought good of purpose to distinguish in this place, lest any man should with Porphyrius, or other like dogs, object to John, or the heavenly Church, a childish and idle repetition of speech. (a) Praise the Lord. (2) The proposition of praise with exhortation in this verse, and the cause of it in (Revelation 19:2). 19:3 And again they said, 3 Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
(3) The song of the Antiphony or response, containing an amplification of the praise of God, from the continuous and certain testimony of his divine judgment as was done at Sodom and Gomorrah, (Genesis 19:1-38). 19:5 4 And a voice came out of the 5 throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.
(4) The second place of praise, as I said See Geneva which first is commanded by God in this verse: and then is in most ample manner pronounced by the creatures, both because they see that kingdom of Christ to come, which they desire, (Revelation 19:6) and also because they see the Church is called forth to be brought home to the house of her husband by holy marriage, to the fellowship of his kingdom, (Revelation 19:7,8). Therefore John is commanded to write in a book the acclamation together with a divine testimony, (Revelation 19:9). (5) Out of the temple from God as in (Revelation 11:19). 19:6 And I heard 6 as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
(6) Outside the temple in heaven. 19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath 7 made herself ready.
(7) Namely, to that holy marriage, both herself in person in this verse, and also provided by her spouse with marriage gifts princely and divine, is adorned and prepared in the next verse. 19:8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in 8 fine linen, clean and white: for the fine 9 linen is the b righteousness of saints.
(8) As an ensign of kingly and priestly dignity, which Christ bestows on us in (Revelation 1:6). (9) This is a gift given by the husband for marriage sake, and a most choice ornament which Christ gave to us, as to his spouse. (b) Good works which are lively testimonies of faith. 19:9 10 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed [are] they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.
(10) Namely the angel, as it appears by the next verse. 19:10 11 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See [thou do it] not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the ctestimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of d Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.
(11) The particular history of this verse is brought in by occasion, and as it were besides the purpose that John might make a public example of his own infirmity and of the modest sanctimony of the angel, who both renounced for himself the divine honours, and recalled all the servants of God, to the worship of him alone: as also (Revelation 22:8). (c) Who are commanded to bear witness of Jesus. (d) For Jesus is the mark that all the prophecies shoot at. 19:11 12 And I saw 13 heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him [was] called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.
(12) The second part of this chapter (as I said in) See Geneva is of the victory gained by Christ against both the beasts: in which first Christ is described as one ready to fight, to the sixteenth verse (Revelation 19:12-16), then the battle is shown to begin, there to the eighteenth verse (Revelation 19:17,18), lastly is set forth the victory, to the end the chapter (Revelation 19:19-21). In this place the most excellent properties of Christ as our heavenly judge and avenger shine forth, according to his person, company, effects and names. (13) Properties belonging to his person, that he is heavenly, judge, faithful, true, just, in this verse, knowing all things, ruling over all, to be known by no one, (Revelation 19:12), the triumpher and in essence, the Word of God, in (Revelation 19:13). 19:14 14 And the armies [which were] in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.
(14) The company or retinue of Christ, holy, innumerable, heavenly, judicial, royal and pure. 19:15 15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.
(15) The effects of Christ prepared to fight, that with his mouth he strikes the Gentiles, rules and destroys. 19:16 16 And he hath on [his] vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.
(16) The name agreeing to Christ according to the former qualities, expressed after the manner of the Hebrews. 19:17 17 And I saw an angel standing in the 18 sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the 19 midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;
(17) The second part, as I said in See Geneva. A reproachful calling forth of his enemies into battle: in which not themselves (for why should they be called forth by the king of the world, or provoked being his subjects? for that is not comely) but in their hearing, the birds of the air are called to eat their carcasses. (18) That is, openly, and in sight of all, as in (Numbers 25:4; 2 Samuel 12:11). (19) That is, through this inferior heaven, and which is nearer to us: a Hebrew phrase. 19:19 20 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
(20) The third part (as was said in) (Revelation 19:11) by the victory obtained by Christ. Two things pertain to this: his fighting with the beast and his forces, in this verse: and the event most magnificent, described after the manner of men, in the verses following. All these things are plain. 19:20 And the beast 21 was taken, and with him 22 the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
(21) Namely, that beast with seven heads; (Revelation 13:1; 17:3). (22) That is, that beast with two heads; (Revelation 13:11; 16:14).

Revelation Chapter 20

The 1599 Geneva Study Bible
Chapter 20
20:1 And 1 I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key 2 of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.
(1) Now follows the third part of the prophetic history, which is of the victory by which Christ overcame the dragon, as I noted in (Revelation 7:1). This part must necessarily be joined with the end of the twelfth chapter and be applied to the correct understanding of it. This chapter has two parts, one of the dragon overcome, to (Revelation 20:2-10): the other of the resurrection and last judgment to (Revelation 20:11-15). The story of the dragon is twofold: First of the first victory, after which he was bound by Christ, to the sixth verse (Revelation 20:1-6). The second is of the last victory, by which he has thrown down into everlasting punishment, there to the fifteenth verse (Revelation 20:7-15). This first history happened in the first time of the Christian Church, when the dragon thrown down from heaven by Christ, went about to molest the new birth of the Church in the earth, (Revelation 12:17,18:1). For which cause I gave warning, that this story of the dragon must be joined to that passage. (2) That is, of hell, where God threw the angels who had sinned, and bound them in chains of darkness to be kept till damnation, (2 Peter 2:4) 20:2 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him 3 a thousand years,
(3) The first of which (continuing this history with the end of the second chapter) in the 36 years from the passion of Christ, when the Church of the Jews being overthrown, Satan attempted to invade the Christian church gathered from the Gentiles, and to destroy part of her seed, (Revelation 12:17). The thousandth year falls precisely on the times of that wicked Hildebrand, who was called Gregory the seventh, a most damnable necromancer and sorcerer, whom Satan used as an instrument when he was loosed out of bonds, from then on to annoy the saints of God with most cruel persecutions, and the whole world with dissentions, and most bloody wars: as Benno the Cardinal reports at large. This is the first victory gained over the dragon in the earth. 20:3 And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations 4 no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed 5 a little season.
(4) Namely, with that public and violent deceit which he attempted before in chapter 12 and which after a thousand years (alas for woe!) he most mightily achieved in the Christian world. (5) Which being once expired, the second battle and victory shall be; (Revelation 20:7,8). 20:4 6 And I saw a thrones, and they sat upon them, and 7 judgment was given unto them: and [I saw] the souls of them that were 8 beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which 9 had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received [his] mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.
(6) A description of the common state of the Church of Christ in earth in that space of a thousand years, during which the devil was in bonds; in which first the authority, life, and common honour of the godly, is declared, (Revelation 20:4). Secondly, newness of life is preached to others by the gospel after that time; (Revelation 20:5). Finally, he concludes with promises, (Revelation 20:6). (a) For judgment was committed to them, as to members joined to the head: not that Christ’s office was given over to them. (7) This was a type of the authority of the good and faithful servants of God in the Church, taken from the manner of men. (8) Of the martyrs, who suffered in those first times. (9) Of the martyrs who suffered after both the beasts were now risen up, chapter 15. For there, these things are expounded. 20:5 10 But the rest of the dead 11 lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This [is] the first resurrection.
(10) Whoever shall lie dead in sin, and not know the truth of God. (11) They shall not be renewed with newness of the life by the enlightening of the gospel of the glory of Christ. For this is the first resurrection, by which souls of the dead do rise from their death. In the second resurrection their bodies shall rise again. 20:6 Blessed and holy [is] he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the 12 second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, 13 and shall reign with him a thousand years.
(12) That by this both body and soul, that is, the whole man is condemned and delivered to eternal death; (Revelation 2:11). (13) A return to the intended history, by resuming the words which are in the end of the fourth verse (Revelation 20:4). 20:7 14 And when the 15 thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,
(14) The second history, of the latter victory of Christ, as was said in (Revelation 20:1). In which are summarily described the work, overthrow, and eternal punishment of Satan. (15) Of which I spoke. See Revelation 20:2 Then there will be given to him liberty to rage against the Church, and to molest the saints for the sins of men: to whom the faithful shall have associated themselves more then was fitting, tasting with them of their impurity of doctrine and life. 20:8 16 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom [is] as the sand of the sea.
(16) The work or act of Satan (which is the first part, as I distinguished in the verse before) to deceive the whole world, even to the uttermost nations of it: to arm them against the people of God, in this verse and to besiege and oppress the Church, with his whole strength, in the verse following. 20:9 And they went up on the b breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and 17 fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.
(b) As if he said, in so much that the whole face of the earth, however great it is, was filled. (17) The wrath of God, consuming the adversaries, and overthrowing all their enterprises; (Hebrews 10:27). This is the second part mentioned See Geneva, in the overthrow of Satan. 20:10 18 And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet [are], and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.
(18) The third part, eternal destruction against those that are overcome: as I noted in the same place. 20:11 19 And I saw a great 20 white throne, and him that sat on it, 21 from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.
(19) The second part of this chapter, in which the judge is described in this verse, and the last judgment in the verse following. (20) That is, a tribunal seat most princelike and glorious: for so does the Greek word signify. (21) That is, Christ, before whom when he comes to judgment, heaven and earth shall perish for the greatness of his majesty; (2 Peter 3:7,10). 20:12 And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before 22 God; and the 23 books were opened: and another book was opened, which is [the book] 24 of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
(22) That is, Christ the judge; (2 Corinthians 5:10). (23) As it were, his books of reckoning or accounts, that is, the testimony of our conscience, and of our works, which by no means can be avoided. (24) The book of the eternal decree of God, in which God the Father has elected in Christ according to the good pleasure of his will, those that shall be heirs of life. This also is spoken according to the manner of men. 20:13 25 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.
(25) This is a reply or an answer to an objection: for some man will say, "But they are dead, whom the sea, death and the grave has consumed, how shall they appear before the judge?" John answers, by resurrection from death, where all things (however repugnant) shall minister and serve at the commandment of God, as in (Daniel 12:1,2). 20:14 26 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.
(26) The last enemy which is death shall be abolished by Christ (that he may no more make any attempt against us) (1 Corinthians 15:16) and death shall feed on the reprobate in hell for evermore, according to the righteous judgment of God, in the next verse (Revelation 20:15).

Revelation Chapter 21

The 1599 Geneva Study Bible
Chapter 21
21:1 And 1 I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.
(1) Now follows the second part of the history prophetic of the future estate of the Church in heaven after the last judgment, to (Revelation 21:2; Revelation 22:5). In this are two things briefly declared. The station, seat, or place of it, (Revelation 21:1). Then her state and condition, in the verses following. Before the state of the Church described, is set down the state of the whole world, that there shall be a new heaven, and a new earth; (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22; 2 Peter 3:13) and this is the seat or place of the Church, in which righteousness shall dwell. 21:2 2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
(2) The state of this glorious Church is first described generally to (Revelation 21:3-8), and then specially and by parts, in the verses following. The general description consists in a vision shown afar off, (Revelation 21:2) and in speech spoken from heaven. In the general these things are common, that the Church is holy, new, the workmanship of God, heavenly, most glorious, the spouse of Christ, and partaker of his glory in this verse. 21:3 3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God [is] with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, [and be] their God.
(3) The Church is described by the speech, first of an angel, in two verses, then by God himself, in four verses. The angel’s speech describes the glory of the Church, by the most intimate communion with God, by giving of all manner of good things according to the covenant, in this verse: and by removing or putting away of all evil things, in the verse following (Revelation 21:4). 21:5 4 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.
(4) In the speech of God himself describing the Church, is first an introduction, or entrance. Then follows a magnificent description of the Church, by the present and future good things of the same, in three verses following (Revelation 21:6-8). In the introduction God challenges to himself the restoring of all the creatures, (Revelation 21:1) and witnesses the calling of John to the writing of these things, in this verse. 21:6 And he said unto me, 5 It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.
(5) The description of the Church is in three parts, by the abolishing of old things, by the being of present things in God, that is, of things eternal: and by the giving of all good things with the godly. If so be they shall contend manfully; (Revelation 21:7). But the reprobate are excluded from there; (Revelation 21:8). 21:8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their a part in the lake which burneth with fire and
(a) Their lot, and inheritance as it were. 21:9 6 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb’s wife.
(6) A transition to the describing of the heavenly Church, by the express calling of John in this verse, and his enrapturing by the Spirit, in confirmation of the truth of God in the verse following. 21:10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and 7 high mountain, and shewed me 8 that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
(7) He means the place and stately seat of the Church, foreshadowed in a mountain. (8) A type of that Church which is one, ample, or catholic, holy celestial, built by God, in this verse: and glorious in the verse following (Revelation 21:11). This type propounded generally, is particularly declared; (Revelation 21:12). 21:12 9 And had a wall great and high, [and] had 10 twelve gates, and at the gates 11 twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are [the names] of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
(9) A particular description of the celestial Church, first, by its essential parts, compared to a city down to verse 22, (Revelation 21:12-22). Secondly, from the outside, to the end of the chapter (Revelation 21:23-27). Thirdly, by the effects, in the beginning of the next chapter, the essential parts are noted the matter and the form in the whole work: of these the superstructure and foundation of the wall are entire parts (as they use to be called) which parts are first described in figure, to the 14th verse afterwards more exactly. (10) According to the number of the tribes. For here the outward part is attributed to the Old Testament, and the foundation of the New Testament. (11) He means the prophets, who are the messengers of God, and watchmen of the Church. 21:14 And the wall of the city had 12 twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
(12) That is, foundation stones, according to the number of the gates, as is shown in (Revelation 21:19). 21:15 13 And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.
(13) A transition to a more exquisite description of the parts of the Church, by finding out its size, by the angel that measured them. 21:16 14 And the city lieth b foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
(14) The measure and form most equal, in two verses. (b) A foursquare figure has equal sides, and outright corners, and therefore the Greeks call by this name those things that are steady, and of continuance and perfect. 21:17 And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred [and] forty [and] four cubits, [according to] the measure of a man, that is, of the c angel.
(c) He adds this, because the angel had the shape of a man. 21:18 15 And the building of the wall of it was [of] jasper: and the city [was] pure gold, like unto clear glass.
(15) The matter most precious and glittering, which the presence of God makes most glorious. 21:21 And the twelve gates [were] twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the d street of the city [was] pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
(d) By street, he means the broadest place of the city. 21:23 16 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb [is] the light thereof.
(16) The second form of particular description (as I said) See Geneva from exterior and outward actions which are these, light from God himself, to this verse glory from men, (Revelation 21:24). Finally such truth and incorruption of glory (Revelation 21:26) as can bear and abide with it, nothing that is inglorious, (Revelation 21:27).

Revelation Chapter 22

The 1599 Geneva Study Bible
Chapter 22
22:1 And 1 he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
(1) Here is absolved and finished the description of the celestial Church (as I showed before) See Geneva by the effects in (Revelation 22:5), and then this book is concluded in the rest of the chapter. The effects proceeding from God, who dwells in the Church, are these: the everlasting grace of God, in this verse, the eternal life of the godly, as in (Revelation 2:7) the eternal fruits which the godly bring forth to God, themselves and others, (Revelation 22:2), freedom and immunity from all evil, God himself taking pleasure in his servants, and they likewise in their God, (Revelation 22:3). The beholding and sight of God, and sealing of the faithful from all eternity, (Revelation 22:4) the light of God and an everlasting kingdom and glory, (Revelation 22:5). 22:6 2 And he said unto me, These sayings [are] faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done.
(2) This whole book is concluded and made up by a confirmation, and a salutation. The confirmation has three parts: the words of the angel (Revelation 22:15), the words of Christ, (Revelation 22:16,17) and the supplication made by John from divine authority, (Revelation 22:18-20). By the speech of the angel this prophecy is confirmed to (Revelation 22:7,8), and then he speaks of the use of this book in the verses following. The prophecy is first confirmed by the angel from the nature of it, that it is faithful and true: Secondly, from the nature of the efficient cause, both principal, which is God, and instrumental, which is the angel in this verse. Thirdly, from the promises of God concerning his coming to effect all these things, and concerning our salvation; (Revelation 22:7). Fourthly, from the testification of John himself; (Revelation 22:8). The rest of the speech of the angel rending to the same end, John interrupted or broke off by his unadvised act of worshipping him, in the same verse, which the angel forbidding, teaches him that adoration must be given not to him, but only to God, as for himself, that he is of such nature and office, as he may not be adored: which thing also was in like manner done; (Revelation 19:10). 22:10 3 And he saith unto me, 4 Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand.
(3) The angel returns to his former speech: in which he teaches to use of this book both towards ourselves, in this and the next verse: and in respect of God for declaration of his truth, there to the fifteenth verse (Revelation 22:11-15). (4) That is, propound this prophecy openly to all and conceal no part of it. The contrary to that which is commanded in (Isaiah 8:16; Daniel 8:26). 22:11 5 He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still.
(5) An objection anticipated, but there will be some that will use this occasion for evil, and will wrest this scripture to their own destruction, as Peter says. What then? says the angel, the mysteries of God must not be concealed, which it has pleased him to communicate to us. Let them be harmful to others, let such be more and more vile in themselves, whom this scripture does not please: yet others will be further conformed to righteousness by this, and true holiness. The care and reformation of these may not be neglected, because of the voluntary and malicious offence of others. 22:12 6 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward [is] with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
(6) The second part belonging to the use of this book, as I said See Geneva. Also (says God by the angel) though there should be no use of this book to men: yet it shall be of this use to me, that it is a witness of my truth to my glory, who will come shortly, to give and execute just judgment, in this verse; who have taught that all these things have their being in me, (Revelation 22:13), and have pronounced blessedness to my servants in the Church, (Revelation 22:14) and reprobation to the ungodly (Revelation 22:15). 22:14 Blessed [are] they that do his commandments, 7 that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.
(7) The blessedness of the godly set down by their title and interest there: and their fruit in the same. 22:16 8 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, [and] the bright and morning star.
(8) The second passage of confirmation (as I said) is the speech of Christ ratifying the vocation of John, and the authority of his calling and testimony, both from the condition of his own person being God and man, in whom all the promises of God are Yea and Amen; (2 Corinthians 1:20) and also from the testimony of other people, by the acclamation of the Holy Spirit, who here is an honourable assistant of the marriage of the Church as the spouse: and of each of the godly as members; and finally from the thing present, that of their own knowledge and accord, they are called forth to the participation of the good things of God; (Genesis 22:17). 22:18 9 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:
(9) The supplication of John (which is the third part of the confirmation) joined with a curse of abhorrence, to preserve the truth of this book entire and uncorrupted in two verses. 22:20 10 He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.
(10) A divine confirmation or sealing of the supplication first from Christ affirming the same and denouncing his coming against all those that will put their sacrilegious hands here: then from John himself, who by a most holy prayer calls Christ to take vengeance on them. 22:21 11 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen.
(11) The apostolic salutation, which is the other part of the conclusion, as I said See Geneva and is the end of almost every epistle; which we wish to the Church, and to all the holy and elect members of it, in Christ Jesus our Lord, until his coming to judgment "Come Lord Jesus" and do it. Amen, again Amen.

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